For organizational research, some of their major goals for research are to examine their formation, recruitment of talent, adaption to constraints, types and causes, factors for growth, change and demise, which all fall under ethnographic studies (Lofland, 2005). Ethnographic studies lend themselves much more nicely to participant-observers.
Participant observer is where the researcher/observer is not just only watching their subjects, but also actively participates (joins in) with their subject. The level of participation of the observer might impact what is observed (the more participation the harder it is to observe and take notes), thus low-key role participation is preferred. Participating before the interviews will allow the observer to be sensitive to important issues otherwise missed. It is a more in-depth version of interviewing building on a regular conversation. Participation may occur after watching for a while, focusing on a specific topic/question. (Rubin, 2012)
- Rubin, H. J. (2012). Qualitative Interviewing, 3rd Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781452285863/
- Lofland, J., Snow, D. A., Anderson, L., Lofland, L. (2005). Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781305848559/